Craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes
The economic theory deals with two types of business entities integration: horizontal and vertical. Cluster environment may include both types of integration — companies producing the same products are interconnected, besides they co-operate with the suppliers and supporting entities, therefore increasing their competitiveness.
Companies are isolated into their approaches to enter a global market; however in many cases it is a hard task for a single company. It could be done in a simpler and more efficient way when companies and suppliers from a particular sector are interconnected in geographically proximate groups or clusters; thus the efficiency may be heightened, greater opportunities for innovation and export created, and favourable conditions reached for the integrated development.
The world and the most advanced practice at Latvia is a good evidence for it. Business entities co-operation and integration is a gateway to integrated development and higher competitiveness on the global markets. Cluster environment is stimulating integrated development of all the business entities within the cluster — related entities suppliers as well as supporting entities research and educational institutions etc. The main research aim is to find out the industrial cluster influence on the integrated development.
Different scientific research craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes and papers were analysed and experts interviewed to achieve this aim.
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Key words: cluster, development, integration, company, competitiveness. Rapid integration with the global economy sustained growth in Latvia over recent years has also made the country more vulnerable to contagion tirdzniecības skolu apskats the economic crisis that is now having dramatic consequences in Latvia.
These concepts may be discussed on different levels: countries, regions, industries and companies. The index is significantly lower comparing to the major part of other European Union countries, including our neighbouring countries — Lithuania 53 and Estonia There are many factors to be analysed but the one which is close related to the topic of the conference and indicates integrated development tendency and co-operation is the state of cluster development index, which measures how prevalent are well-developed and deep clusters.
Unfortunately this is one of the weakest points of the country — Latvia ranks only on the th place in the list The Global Competitiveness Report, It is not good environment for collaboration and development.
Companies are isolated into their approaches to develop and enter new markets and in many cases these approaches could be more successful in case of a proper strategy selection. It is particularly important to consider the specifics of the national economy of Latvia — all the companies are small or medium sized according to the global market standards.
It is essential for the companies to co-operate and integrate to increase export potential and be successful on the global markets. Craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes research object is states included in the Global Competitiveness Report with a special attention paid to the economic problems in Latvia.
The research subject is cluster environment and integrated development.
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The research hypothesis: Cluster environment may enlarge the level of co-operation between different companies and induces integrated development of companies in diverse industries.
Economic Science for Rural Development Nr. The statistical data from craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes and local organisations are also used in the paper. Industrial Clusters Economists have always had an interest in factors governing in the economic development. This issue has been addressed at different levels, the company level Rumelt R. The economic development of regions receives more and more attention. One particular regional environment, to which a relatively prosperous economic development is often attributed, is a cluster, defined as a regional concentration of related economic activities Krugman P.
A large variety of clusters, each with different characteristics Dijk M. Famous examples include Italian industrial districts Brusco S. Another famous economist and one of the cluster theory pioneers - M. Porter has developed a framework of competitiveness analysis Diamond which was based on the cluster approach.
There are four interrelated areas in the Diamond: factor conditions, company strategy and rivalry, local demand conditions, and presence of related and supporting industries Porter M. An industrial cluster is an agglomeration of companies, suppliers, service providers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Often included are financial providers, education institutions, and various levels of government.
These entities are linked by complementarities of different types and are usually located near each other Cluster Policy in Europe, Clusters can create tangible economic benefits: companies may operate with a higher level of — efficiency, drawing on more specialised assets and suppliers with shorter reaction times than they would be able to in isolation; companies and research institutions may achieve — higher levels of innovation.
Close interaction with customers and other companies create more craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes ideas and create pressure to innovate, while the cluster environment lowers the cost of experimenting; Economic Science for Rural Development Nr. Level of trust craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes increasing within the cluster at the same time reducing the costs of failure, as entrepreneurs can fall back on local employment opportunities in many other companies in the same field.
Strategic initiatives may vary by different cases, but often focus on improving market information, workforce development, supply chain improvements, common quality standards, branding, integration, and process improvements.
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Cluster initiative around the world shows that the crucial element of initiative development is the creation of a platform for meaningful dialogue within the cluster, to develop business strategies, and with the public sector, to discuss policy changes and possibly financial support Cluster Policy in Europe, Generally, there are four cluster development stages Clusters for Competitiveness, : — Cluster mapping and initial engagement. In this stage the main objectives are to establish clustereconomy embeddedness, bring key companies together around shared interests and test craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes of long-term project.
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Although it is important to apply industry diagnostics and produce strategy. Applying diagnostic tools to assess the market trends, value chains and analysis of competitive positioning of the cluster are extremely important to develop reasonable cluster strategy. It would be very useful to study and analyse other successful cluster examples.
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Process objectives are to implement strategic projects, mobilise investment, and improve the business environment. Mobilising cluster leaders to initiate productive publicprivate dialogues for implementation of policy and strategic initiatives is also important part of this stage.
Cluster companies shall work together with governmental institutions to release immediate policy constraints and formulate long-term strategies and policy reform. Due diligence and formalisation of the institutional Stradivari Option atsauksmes of the cluster are essential for project sustainability. Social networking beyond the formal life of cluster initiative is necessary to ensure the cluster continuity.
However, cluster efficiency may depend on various external factors: local demand, development of related and supporting industries, and production 15 factors capital and infrastructure Porter M.
These are indicators which characterise an economic development stage of the region. Thus cluster efficiency is craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes on the economic development of the region. In the regions, which are at the factor-driven and efficiency-driven stages, including the regions of Latvia, competitiveness is a condition for successful cluster diploma iespējas. For the regions, which are at innovation-driven stage, clusters are one of the factors increasing competitiveness level of the region Boronenko V.
Economic development in different regions of Craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes is very diverse and it must be borne in mind when evaluating potential or existing cluster performance.
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Economic development stage f a region is not an invincible barrier for cluster development. Kassalis Industrial Clusters: an Opportunity to Stimulate Business Entities Integration and Competitiveness Source: Forming of Business Clusters, and it is an indicator that business environment has become more unfavourable. It is not an easy task to find clear and trustable explanation for this fact. Explanation might be the fact that clusters in Latvia are mainly concentrated in the industrial economic sectors.
Since industries proportion has been gradually decreasing in the national economy of Latvia and the share of service sector has become more significant Sprogis A. Thus industrial activities stagnation is reducing opportunities for industrial cluster development.
The main factors are lack of innovative products, out-of-date production equipment, significant start-up investments, poor experience on the global markets, and other factors. Companies which are working in the cluster environment are tended to collaborate more deeply comparing with companies outside the cluster.
This section describes the influence of the cluster environment on the integrated development of companies, and the interaction among the companies is shown in Figure 1.
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The economic theory provides two types of business entities integration: horizontal and vertical. Horizontal integration strategy is a set of coherent, long-term objectives and action programme aimed at identifying and exploiting interrelationships across distinct but related business units Hax C.
Therefore, a crucial first step in the definition of horizontal strategy is to identify the sources of possible interrelationships.
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Porter proposes three types: opportunities to share activities in the value chain; transference of management know-how among separate value chains; Figure 1. Kassalis Industrial Clusters: an Opportunity to Stimulate Business Entities Integration and Competitiveness the existence of rivals that actually or potentially compete with the company in more than one business year. Collaboration between a buyer and a supplier has increased during recent years to become a natural part of the operations of any company developing complex products.
These two forms of vertical integration are sometimes referred to as upstream and downstream extensions Hax C. The major benefits of vertical integration are: cost reduction cost to internalise economies of scale and scope, craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes avoid transaction costs from imperfect marketsdefensive market power provides autonomy of supply or demand as well as protection of valuables assets and servicesoffensive market Bitcoin diagramma šodien allows access to new business opportunities, new forms of technology, and differentiation strategiesand craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes managerial advantages arising from a more simplified managerial infrastructure when basic tasks are brought inside as opposed to left outside the company Lindquist A.
The pyramid structure illustrates the co-operation and integration within the cluster environment. There are three levels in the pyramid and they are interconnected. Leading companies are on the top of craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes pyramid and are the key factors and driving force in the cluster.
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The main task of related companies and support infrastructure is to support business of leading companies. Leading companies usually generate Source: Clusters for Competitiveness, Figure 2.
There could be different kind of co-operation forms — networking, research implementation, product development, and other types.
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Different co-operation forms is a motive why leading companies are developing more coordinated compared with companies outside the cluster.
Leading companies within the cluster are an example of horizontal integration process and integrated development. Good example of horizontal integration within the cluster is Australian wine cluster Figure 2. The analysis of the Australian wine cluster with its rich set of institutions provides an important backdrop to understanding its remarkable success. While the cluster has long historical roots — some dating back to the s, the development of modern institutional structures has begun largely in the s, when a mix of private, semi-private, and public organisations started to emerge.
Soon after, the growth rate of Australian wine exports increased significantly. It is important to note that the new institutions worked because they drew efficiently on the capital that had been built through old institutions over decades Clusters for Competitiveness, Pazemināja opcijas depozītu this case business targets and strategy of the cluster were changed and results were surprisingly good — resulting in the increase of 17 I.
Exporting unprocessed carcasses to traditional markets Scenario 2. Exporting processed meat to specific markets export potential and global competitiveness of the craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes industry. The turning point was creation of kā jūs varat nopelnīt naudu metinātājam clear cluster vision and strategy accepted by every cluster member.
In many industries of Latvia companies are united by local associations, and therefore have particular cooperation history. Professional cluster managers and engagement of every participant are necessary conditions for the development. The middle part of the pyramid Figure 1 discloses related companies — suppliers, which are providing leading companies with industrial technology, equipment, components, raw materials, and different Figure 3.
Mongolian meat industry kinds of services. Related companies have high level of specialisation of production and are located geographically close to the leading companies.
The focus customers for related companies are leading companies.
Both types of companies are interdependent craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes tightly integrated on the vertical level. For example, in the mining industry industrial technology manufacturer dealer might provide equipment which is appropriate for specific demands of a leading company and is useless for others.
This is a true model of vertical integration — companies have integrated development, and success or failure of the leading companies will directly influence the related company. Kassalis Industrial Clusters: an Opportunity to Stimulate Business Entities Integration and Competitiveness integrate value added operations such as quality checks, packaging, and marketing into the meat industry value chain Clusters for Competitiveness, These upgrades were necessary to reorient companies toward more demanding and lucrative export markets.
Project experts have also identified transportation options and completed craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes studies to confirm feasibility of exporting to five Asian and two Middle Eastern markets. With assistance of various associations, and government agencies, the project worked with industry to streamline government policies and standards related to agricultural exports. As a result, the Mongolian Meat industry was deepened and new craford trading ierobežotas atsauksmes were supplemented to the value chains.
In this instance, the addition of veterinary services, meat inspection, and processing, packaging, labelling, and marketing operations to the Mongolian value chain provides gains of nearly 40 percent in meat industry earnings Clusters for Competitiveness, Involvement of new production stages, process upgrade and standardisation were key factors to increase efficiency and export potential within the cluster.
Initiative and co-operation were the most important things for successful outcome of the project. The project had positive influence of the whole meat industry - new quality standards were defined and industry became more competitive on the global market. From the economic point of view it is bad that export of more deeply processed timber products is not increasing Sprogis J.
Deepening production value chains and export of high value added timber products are essential factors to increase profitability in the industry. The pyramid fundament Figure 1 displays the support infrastructure, whose main task is to provide conditions necessary for development of the leading companies.
It is possible to kā nopelnīt tonnas naudas dienā out two types of infrastructure: physical and institutional.
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Physical infrastructure includes roads, ports, communication sets and ensure base for the industry development. Institutional infrastructure includes different service providers banks, venture capitals, law and marketing servicesresearch and education institutions providing cluster companies with qualified labour force and innovationsand other support institutions agencies, municipalities, professional associations.
After summarising benefits for cluster participants it is easy to answer the question why cluster is necessary. The most observable benefits for cluster companies are as follows: 1.
Resource consolidation and interconnected supplementation are reasons why: — it is possible to fulfil higher quality standards and get large scale orders; — it is possible to receive necessary raw materials on more favourable conditions; Economic Science for Rural Development Nr.